Reforming Community Penalties: Sue Rex
Can offenders be rehabilitated? Can this be done in ways that benefit the community as a whole, as well as offenders? This book is about the history, theory, practice and effectiveness of rehabilitation. It shows how different beliefs about the value of rehabilitation and about what works have influenced criminal justice policy and practice at different times, and it identifies a number of promising approaches for the future. Everyone interested in the rehabilitation of offenders should read this book. Author Peter Raynor: Peter Raynor is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Swansea University in Wales, UK. A former probation officer and social work educator, he has been carrying out and publishing research on effective practice in probation services since the 1970s. His previous books include Social Work, Justice and Control (1985); Probation as an Alternative to Custody (1988); Effective Probation Practice (with Smith and Vanstone, Macmillan, 1994); Understanding Community Penalties (with Vanstone, 2002); Race and Probation (with Lewis, Smith and Wardak, 2005); Developments in Social Work with Offenders (with Gill McIvor, Jessica Kingsley 2007); Rehabilitation,
Polemic Paper from the year 2016 in the subject Law - Philosophy, History and Sociology of Law, grade: 89.00, Bilkent University (English), course: Englis-102, language: English, abstract: It is obvious that law and morality both seek our piece of mind and justice. As a description in the Oxford Dictionary law is the system of rules which a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and which it may enforce by the imposition of penalties. Law establishes this with the enforcements and punishments if you step over the lines shaped by laws. Morality which is described in Oxford Dictionary as: morality is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper also has punishments for bad acts and rewards for good acts like guilt and denouncement for crimes and praise. These two phenomenons might seem very diverse but they have one obvious thing in common: they affect the way we live. The problem is that it is inevitable to say that there is a huge conflict between law and morality and this conflict shows itself on some specific examples. In todays world some of the law experts may claim that law is absolute. Its importance is over all other regulators like morality. However the conflict between them proves that moral principles are still stronger than legal principles for some cases. Although today one can argue that as long as law permits certain social practices such as same-sex marriage, abortion and legislation of prostitution should not be considered as legally wrong, they are moral problems of modern world, which proves that moral principles are still stronger than legal principles. This is a polemic pamphlet. The text solely reflects the opinion of the author. This text was written by a non-native English speaker. Please excuse any errors or inconsistencies.
Excerpt from Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Vol. 18 The problem of administration in Iowa is the universal problem of the American State of to-day, that of the proper apportionment of powers between the State and the local government. Responsibility, efficiency and freedom in administration, this is the triple end sought in the efforts toward improvement of government, an end upon the attainment of which many of the unrealized ideals of democratic society depend. There is little in the institutions of Iowa to distinguish it markedly from other States. In the years preceding 1850 it had the characteristics common to pioneer government, many that two hundred years before had stamped the seaboard colonies. Penalties for refusal to serve in local offices, meetings of the townsfolk to regulate their local affairs, viva voce voting not only upon minor matters, but upon the acceptance or rejection of their early Constitutions; through this familiar stage the community, with the laws and traditions that it had inherited, was almost bound to pass. Now and then it devised governmental machinery of its own, such as that embodied in the firm covenant of the Land Claims Associations, but usually its political and social inheritance was found adequate to its needs. The broad outline of the government of to-day is substantially that of the second year of its independent territorial existence. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
??????This Brief provides a clearly outlined and accessible overview of the challenges in creating and enforcing hate crime legislation in the United States. As the author explains, while it is generally not controversial that hate crime behavior should be stopped, the question of how to do so effectively is complex. This volume begins with an introduction about defining hate crimes, and the history of hate crimes and hate crime legislation in the United States. The author shows arguments in favor of hate crime statutes, for example: hate crimes reach beyond their victims to members of the victims protected group and cohesion of society at large, and should therefore carry higher penalties.The author also shows arguments against hate crime statutes, for example that they sometimes contain enhanced penalties for certain specially protected groups and not others, and have a high potential for ambiguity and uneven enforcement. From a law enforcement perspective, the author explores the practical challenges in enforcing these statutes, and solutions to address them. Investigative techniques and resources vary significantly across police departments, as does training to identify and distinguish hate crimes from ordinary crimes. There is high potential for law enforcement and prosecutors personal biases to effect the classification of crimes as hate crimes. Law enforcement organizations are constantly faced with the dilemma of what and how to enforce legislation. This brief will be relevant for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, policy makers involved in hate crime legislation, social justice, and police-community relations, as well as related fields such as sociology, public policy and demography.? Frank S. Pezzella, PhD (Criminal Justice, SUNY Albany) is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. His research interests include Race and Crime, Hate Crimes and the influence of African American religiosity on the behavior of formerly incarcerated persons. This work was published in early 2014 in Springers Journal of Religion and Health under the title Religion and the Behavioral Health of Formerly Incarcerated Men. Prior to his current position he worked as an analyst and Deputy Chief Clerk for the NYS Unified Court System. He conducted research for legislative approval to implement community and problem solving courts. Such specialized courts such as substance abuse, domestic violence, reentry, and mental health courts are now present throughout all 62 counties in New York State. Dr. Pezzella has also worked on the expansion and institutionalization of the original Manhattan Bail Project for Vera Institutes Pre-trial Services Agency (now the New York City Criminal Justice agency (CJA)) charged with assessing NYC defendants eligibility for release on recognizance under evidenced based criteria that defendants will likely to return to the jurisdiction of the court.
Scientific Essay from the year 2017 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: A1, , course: General Studies Department, Nasarawa State Poltechnic, Lafia; Bridge Gate Research Consult Ltd, Gwagwalada, Abuja, FCT; Gokin and Dab Educational Services and Consultancy, Lafia, language: English, abstract: Corruption permeates all facets of the Nigerian society. It degenerates and permeates every sector in Nigeria, because those who are in the right place to help get rid of it are themselves the most corrupt. They are politicians, elites and the bourgeoisie, who have institutionalised corruption. This study appraises the level of corruption that obtains in Nigerian tertiary institutions, which continuously degenerates across times, as it seems to have defied practical solutions. That is, it aims to ascertain the level of corruption in these institutions. It relates the corruption obtained in tertiary institutions to that of the Nigerian polity, from where it sprang to the institutions. It conceptualises corruption, along with the conceptions of several other scholars. It makes distinction between elitist (institutionalised/formalised) corruption and that of the common masses, a derivation and minor/micro-phase of the former. The study thus interrogates the inefficacy of the various anti-corruption crusades and programmes of the various Nigerian governments, both military regime and civilian dispensation alike. The effects of corruption on Nigeria and Nigerians also constitute its scope. It attempts a trace of corruption, which it asserts to have risen during the colonial era. It also tells why corruption permeates Nigerian tertiary institutions, and why it degenerates in the institutions as well as other sectors of the country. Being a position paper, it involves text-content analysis, qualitative approach, intuition and the non-participant observation. Its offered recommendations include ensuring of good leadership; the evolving and imbibing of the multi-dimensional syndromes of ethics; strong and operational legislations and penalties against all categories of offenders without sparing any sacred cows; and attitudinal change by both government and the citizenry are the panacea. Robert, Odey Simon holds BA (Hons) in Languages and Linguistics of the Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. He is currently a Post-Graduate candidate. He has lectured on part-time basis in several higher institutions, with one of the recent ones being in the Consultancy Services Unit of the General Studies Department, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia. He also taught English Language and Literature-in-English in several colleges, with Sandaji College, Lafia, Nasarawa, Nigeria being the most recent. He is also an external English Language subject Examiner to WAEC and NECO. He has been researching with several firms, including Bridge Gate Research Consult Ltd, Owerri, Abraka, Port-Harcourt, Lafia, Gboko and New Frontline Industries Research and Publications Ltd, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Robert is an erudite, versatile and experienced young promising and diligent linguist, scholar, researcher, writer and poet, with several works of both print and electronic versions to his credit- papers, international journals and poetry, prose and drama collections, some of which currently await publication, including two anthologies, two novels and a play. He has also attended several local and international conferences. He is of Utugbor royal blood- the family of Chief Robert Idachu Njor of Utugbor, Ika-Ichia, Bekwarra, Cross River State, Nigeria. He is so bent to Bekwarra/African Linguistics, Cultural/Gender Studies, Arts/Humanities, Education, Philosophy/Religion, Politics and Economy, besides general knowledge; writing, researching, travelling and community development/voluntary services.