Revision with unchanged content. The recent trend of urban sprawl in the United States has resulted in a demand for alternatives. Long commutes and automobile centered lifestyles leave less time to exercise, increase air pollution, and decrease human interaction, a key aspect of mental health. One potential solution to sprawl is an urban planning model called "Smart Growth," which combines the aspects of dense residential construction, public transportation, and multi-use neighborhoods where residents can work, shop, and go to school all within walking distance of their homes. Although Smart Growth is often touted as a solution to the negative effects of urban sprawl, qualitative and quantitative research results suggest that there are also potential negative consequences that accompany urban renewal. This book examines the impact of urban renewal on individual health, specifically focusing on one community in Portland, Oregon. While considering issues such as displacement and social capital, this book seeks to answer two questions: Can Portland effectively use a market driven urban renewal model to improve health? And if so, are the health benefits provided by Smart Growth accessible to all in the community?
This is an age of rapidly growing global population, industrialization and technological advancement. This has led to a large number of problems of different nature and scale. Issues of sustainable development, pollution prevention, global environmental change and related issues of population-environment interaction are a major concern of the global scientific community as well as to common citizens and policy makers. In this situation the geo-spatial tool i.e. integration of remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been widely applied and recognized as a powerful and effective tools for handling such issues and challenges. These technologies provide a flexible environment for collecting, entering, analyzing, and displaying spatial data for various urban environmental issues. This book tries to focus on some of these issues which are of utmost importance e.g. urban sprawl, land use/land cover change, vegetation assessment, surface water bodies, ground water pollution, air and noise pollution, surface rainfall runoff etc. And what are the different satellite data sets and GIS methods that can be applied in handling these issues.
The use of community consultation to address socio-environmental degradation is entwined with contested democratic principles polarising views of its role. Three democratic paradigms are at issue. Conceiving consultation as deliberative reconciles the liberal view of consultation as the illegitimate elevation of minority groups with the participationist view that consultation constitutes a step towards participatory democracy. A deliberative conception of the role of community consultation over socio-environmental degradation nonetheless confronts the problem of functional differentiation that renders legal, political, techno-scientific and administrative domains increasingly self referential and unaccountable. This problematic is illustrated with the case of Western Sydney s urban sprawl into the Hawkesbury Nepean River Catchment in the Australian State of New South Wales. This sprawl arose from economic growth underwritten by the New South Wales State. The consultative provisions of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act (1979) failed to resolve the contestation that environmental degradation of this region provoked.
Human settlements development and growth in third world countries and cities in particular is a big challenge. The challenge is multifaceted, involving three main core issues centred on sustainability. These are environmentally sound planning which takes cognisant of the need to not only infringe on fragile ecosystems but ensure that streams/riverine ecosystems are conserved to play their rightful functions of water storage and as habitats of fauna and flora. The other core issues are to produce efficient cities/human settlements that address human needs of water supply, sanitation, transport, health facilities and economic needs of the community. Lastly but not the least planning should espouse to be inclusive on issues of producing not only sustainable cities/human settlements but ones that are secure and safe for the dwellers. These can be achieved only when city planners take into account the aspirations of the people. The desire to meet these standards has been forestalled by non inclusive and futuristic planning. Lusaka which depicts a typical failed third world city has grown and has become an urban sprawl without proper planning.
Waste Management starts with you and me..., "sustainable waste management for a healthy and vital Human and green Environment". In the context of urban sprawl and increasing use of solid waste, waste is becoming a global menace contributing slowly to thermal climate change at micro level, which indirectly and directly in long run, impacts the life of the society, the paper examines role of community in waste generation and management, by comparing high density and low density settlements. Critically examines and evaluate roles played by both sides and proposes best waste management strategies for a green and resilience society.
This study an assessment of vulnerability of urban informal settlements to environmental hazards was conducted in Korogocho as a response to the emerging world view that recognizes urban informal settlements as areas exposed to numerous environmental hazards and disasters. This is particularly evident in Kenya where the issue of proliferation of informal settlements and urban sprawl has been on the rise. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data to achieve its objectives. The study employed the use of community-based indicators system (Bollin 2003) for vulnerability assessment at a micro scale level. The indicators were weighted depending on the hazards, exposure and vulnerability, and coping capacity. The study results revealed that Korogocho is highly vulnerable to disease related hazards, floods, fires and droughts which culminate in famine and general insecurity. The lack of a cogent land-use plan for the area further complicates the problem. The findings from this study would go a long way in building disaster resilient cities in Africa.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Wal-Mart Watch, formed in the spring of 2005, is a joint project of the Center for Community and Corporate Ethics, a non-profit organization studying the impact of large corporations on society and its advocacy arm, Five Stones. Initial national partners include Sojourners, American Independent Business Association, National Council of Women''s Organizations, Sierra Club, Interfaith Worker Justice, Campus Progress, Teamsters, United Food and Commercial Workers, Sprawl-Busters. Initial local partners include Neighborhood Retail Alliance, Arizona Chain Reaction, LAANE, Kentucky Fairness Campaign, Florida National Organization for Women, Wisconsin League of Conservation Voters and Clergy and Laity United for Economic Justice.
Ecovillages are intentional communities with the goal of becoming more socially, economically and ecologically sustainable. Some aim for a population of 50-150 individuals because this size is considered to be the maximum social network according to findings from sociology and anthropology.Larger ecovillages of up to 2,000 individuals exist as networks of smaller subcommunities to create an ecovillage model that allows for social networks within a broader foundation of support. Certain ecovillages have grown by the nearby addition of others, not necessarily members, settling on the periphery of the ecovillage and effectively participating in the ecovillage community (see, for example, Findhorn).Ecovillage members are united by shared ecological, social-economic and cultural-spiritual values. An ecovillage is often composed of people who have chosen an alternative to centralized electrical, water, and sewage systems. Many see the breakdown of traditional forms of community, wasteful consumerist lifestyles, the destruction of natural habitat, urban sprawl, factory farming, and over-reliance on fossil fuels, as trends that must be changed to avert ecological disaster.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl, and advocates compact, transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including neighborhood schools, complete streets, and mixed-use development with a range of housing choices. Smart growth values long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over a short-term focus. Its goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place, expand the range of transportation, employment, and housing choices, equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development, preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources, and promote public health.